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Consultancy to Document Six Citywide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS) Regulatory Journeys, East and Southern Africa Regional Office, 55 days over a 2-month Period
Job no: 563561
Contract type: Consultant
Duty Station: Nairobi
Level: Consultancy


Location: Kenya
Categories: WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene)
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Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) | UNICEF

How can you make a difference?

Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is the world’s fastest urbanizing region, with an annual urban population growth rate of 4.1 per cent, in comparison to the world’s rate of 2 per cent[1]. In the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) Region, the largest proportion of the population in the urban areas that have any form of sanitation depend on non-sewered sanitation. Only 9.1 % of the urban population have access to sewered sanitation services whilst about 39% are serviced by on-site sanitation[2].

UNICEF has committed to work in all settings, both urban and rural whilst at the same time through its Sanitation Game Plan 2.0 aims to work with governments and partners to define localized pathways to achieving safely managed sanitation (SMS) service. The UNICEF ESA Regional Office Management Plan (ROMP) aligns with the UNICEF global WASH strategy which advocates to build on the gains made in rural sanitation and to accelerate support for safely managed urban sanitation.

Recognizing that the largest proportion of the population in the urban areas of its member countries depend on non-sewered sanitation, the Eastern and Southern Africa Association of Water and Sanitation Regulators (ESAWAS)[3] has developed a Regulatory Framework and Strategy for inclusive urban sanitation service provision incorporating non-sewered sanitation services that specifies regulatory touch points along the entire service chain of non-sewered sanitation. The Regulatory Framework and Strategy was supported for implementation by the development of three guidelines for Sanitation Tariff Setting, Sanitation Service Provision and City-Wide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS) Planning.

The ESAWAS Framework and Guidelines is being adopted for implementation according to country context by ESAWAS members. Further tools and instruments have been and are being developed at region level to accelerate uptake and support countries integrating non-sewered sanitation into regulation within the country context at policy, regulatory and service provision levels.

Currently, out of its 12 members, ESAWAS has six members that have advanced inclusive sanitation regulation at country level in the past five years. These include the:

Water Services Regulatory Board (WASREB) of Kenya;
Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Authority (RURA) of Rwanda;
Energy and Water Utilities Regulatory Authority (EWURA) of Tanzania;
National Water Supply and Sanitation Council (NWASCO) of Zambia;
Autorité de Régulation des secteurs de l’Eau potable et de l’Energie (AREEN) of Burundi; and
Water Utility Regulation Department (WURD) of Uganda.

Whilst CWIS has been implemented in Mozambique and Kenya, UNICEF also currently implements CWIS in Ethiopia, which also include joint learning between the similar CWIS project under implementation in Kenya by UN-Habitat. The CWIS in Kenya and Ethiopia will contribute to informing the scale up of CWIS in the region. Components of UNICEF implemented CWIS include development of CWIS master plans, capacity building and integration of CWIS in national policies. Additionally, UNICEF is undertaking a mapping of CWIS activities in the ESA region.

Harnessing knowledge of regulatory practices in CWIS would aid in strengthening the capacity of regulators and other implementing agencies (government, utilities, private etc) across Africa and globally to effectively discharge the mandate and improve service delivery. However, there are few materials available on how regulation in practice works to serve as evidence for establishment and strengthening of safely managed sanitation regulation, as well as dissemination of good practices.

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The interventions by UNICEF ESARO and ESAWAS on regulation and CWIS are complimentary and based on series of meetings, both institutions do recognize the need to document learning to date on regulation of safely managed urban sanitation. However, this is a specialist function, comprising sector technical knowledge and collection of primary and secondary information/data from multiple countries, documentation skills and significant time input for which both institutions do not have the in-house staffing capacity. Both institutions have thus partnered to issue a joint consultancy to undertake the required documentation of regulation.



The goal of the consultancy is to create an online repository of practical knowledge with open access in the form of a Water and Sanitation Services (WSS) regulatory body of practice that can assist in regulatory capacity development, as well as provide evidence-based advocacy for countries wishing to establish/strengthen inclusive sanitation regulation.


The specific objective of the assignment is to document the regulatory journeys of ESAWAS and six members, in the form of a written technical publication encompassing the implementation of Citywide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS) in regulation at regional and country levels.


The scope of the consultancy will aim to answer the following issues and questions.

Overall sanitation situation – major prompts for change
Initiating regulation of non-sewered sanitation – critical issues that led to implementation of CWIS
Policy and Legal backing – adequacy of enabling environment for regulatory effectiveness
Process undertaken for CWIS implementation – prerequisite, steps, stakeholder involvement, sanitation baselines, linkages/experiences with other agencies, particularly Councils, Environmental Protection agencies and ministries
Regulated sanitation services
Urban and rural considerations
What has changed – policy/law, regulation, guidelines development, sector planning &financing, service provision, compliance by service providers, consumers engagement, service coverage including urban poor
Key innovations – creative approaches not enshrined in legal instruments
Regulatory tools and mechanisms – what is working, what had to be dropped or changed
Regulation impact- comparison before and after regulation, improvement in service provision/coverage, quality of service, performance of service providers.
Improving accountability – by Utilities, private sector etc
Challenges, lessons learnt and outlook
The Consultant will undertake any necessary research and consultation to achieve the outputs and develop a suitable framework for information capturing.

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The consultant is expected to conduct the following tasks.

Hold an introductory meeting with UNICEF and ESAWAS to clarify expectations, contractual and work modalities, and roles and responsibilities of the contract parties
Hold an inception meeting with all six countries and develop an Inception Report including finalisation of work plan, approach, list of interviewees and data/information gathering tools for the assignment including questionnaires and key informant interview template
Conduct interviews in six countries of the members of the association: Zambia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Burundi and Uganda with
relevant staff from the regulators to get information on their journey in sanitation regulation and benefits from the Association.
selected WSS utilities for an overview on utility-regulator relationship and how regulation has impacted the utility performance in sanitation service provision.
Selected policy-makers for feedback on the enabling environment for the sector.
Selected sector partners and actors that have been instrumental in supporting sanitation regulation
Selected private sector sanitation players/entrepreneurs
Households, including vulnerable groups in areas with sanitation regulation in place
Conduct interviews with ESAWAS Secretariat covering the regional approach to supporting implementation of sanitation regulation among countries.
Conduct interviews with regional development partners and stakeholders including but not limited to Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) TA Hub for Sub Saharan Africa, Pan African Association of Sanitation Actors and UNICEF.
Produce a consolidated draft technical report in the form of written documentaries for each country and ESAWAS detailing the respective journey, regulatory framework in place and impacts in practice covering the objectives in section 3 above.
Validate the draft technical report with country focal points and other relevant stakeholders including an online consultative session.
Based on feedback from validation, produce a final technical report.
Produce an abridged version of the final technical report for high level policy makers.


The Consultant will be supervised by a joint team from UNICEF and ESAWAS. Strategic guidance on the consultancy will be provided by the UNICEF WASH Regional Adviser and ESAWAS Executive Secretary whilst day to day supervision will be provided by the UNICEF WASH Specialist and ESAWAS Focal Point respectively and during the duration of each specific contract.

Data and documentation on ESAWAS members and itself which ESAWAS may have in its custody, will be made available; however, the consultant has the responsibility for collecting the required information which cannot be made available from official sources. ESAWAS will (i) Facilitate in establishing communication with the relevant Members and utilities and (ii) Assist the consultant in obtaining any information required from government agencies which is considered essential.

The indicative deliverables for the assignment are outlined below. All the reports shall be written in English and submitted electronically. The reports shall be in a format ready for printing and publishing. All reports will have to be approved by the contract issuing institution for payment to be made to the consultant.



Deliverables/Milestones and Responsible Agency issuing contract


Suggested Timeline

Proposed No of working days per deliverable

Schedule of payment


Introductory Meeting Read Out (UNICEF)

Clarification on objectives and expectations

1 week after contract effectiveness



Inception Report (UNICEF)

Timeline for the assignment, structure of the main report, finalized approach and methodology, data and information collection and analysis framework, resource persons for interview and updated risk matrix

3 weeks after contract effectiveness




Draft version of the Report (ESAWAS)

Includes initial collection and review of relevant documentations in the sector and country situation

Month 4 after effectiveness of the contract




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Online validation of draft report (ESAWAS)

Present draft report to key stakeholders

Month 4.5 after effectiveness of the contract



Final version of Report (ESAWAS)

Includes detailed documentation of regulatory journeys from desk and informant interviews validated by ESAWAS, UNICEF and country focal points

Month 5 after effectiveness of the contract




Abridged version of report (UNICEF)

Summarized version of the report including key successes, challenges and lessons learnt. The report not to exceed 15 pages

Month 5.5 after effectiveness of contract




This consultancy is a joint undertaking by UNICEF and ESAWAS. Although the consultancy is considered as one single holistic assignment, the consultancy will be issued under two separate contracts.

The selected will be required to sign two separate contracts with UNICEF ESARO and ESAWAS respectively under the contract terms and conditions of each of the respective institutions.

Neither UNICEF ESARO nor ESAWAS shall be entitled to act or make legally binding declarations on behalf of the other Party. Nothing in this consultancy shall be deemed to constitute a joint venture, agency, interest grouping or any other kind of formal grouping or entity between the Parties.

UNICEF ESARO and ESAWAS will be individually and separately responsible for dealing with any claims or demands arising out of its actions or omissions, and those of its personnel, in relation to this consultancy.


The consultancy will be home based, with field missions to at least two of the target countries. ESAWAS will cover the cost of travel by the consultant and should not be included in the consultant’s proposal. The consultant will be responsible for provision of computer and any other related IT equipment required for the consultancy.




Consultant fails to produce quality and timely deliverables

Regular monitoring meetings will be held with the consultant to proactively address any implementation challenges.

Payment to the consultant will be based on submission of approved deliverables only

Low level of engagement of stakeholders including utilities and regulatory institutions

Inception meeting to be held with key stakeholders and country focal points to clarify roles and harmonise expectations


The consultant will be an experienced WSS technical expert with qualifications and specialization in preparing and producing written documentaries. Specific requirements are as follows:

An advanced (master’s) degree in engineering, social sciences, or related fields.
*A first degree with additional two years of relevant experience may suffice in lieu of an advanced degree.

At least eight years’ experience in advisory/ support functions in similar assignment with demonstrated experience in the preparation of documents/publications and/or academic research.
Demonstrated experience in producing high quality written documentaries across multiple cities/countries
Fluency in English. Working knowledge of French is an added advantage.
Prior work experience, particularly in WSS in Africa, with ESAWAS, UNICEF or any of its members would be an added advantage.

Ability to take initiative and drive for result
Ability to think and act strategically and work collaboratively with others
Excellent analytical and written and verbal communications skills

For every Child, you demonstrate…

UNICEF’s values of Care, Respect, Integrity, Trust, Accountability, and Sustainability (CRITAS).

To view our competency framework, please visit  here.


As per UNICEF DFAM policy, payment by UNICEF is made against approved deliverables only.

Individuals engaged under a consultancy or individual contract by UNICEF will not be considered ‘staff members’ under the Staff Regulations and Rules of the United Nations and UNICEF’s policies and procedures

Individuals engaged under a consultancy or individual contract issued by ESAWAS will be governed by the Laws of Zambia and are subject to payment of Withholding Tax which must be inclusive in the consultant’s fee.


Qualified candidates are requested to submit a cover letter, CV, P11 form and their technical proposals to the UNICEF online recruitment portal (Talent Management System) or email provided.

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Interested candidates should submit their technical proposal including confirming their availability, and daily rate in USD for internationally recruited candidates. However, Kenyan or Zambian applicants domiciled in their home countries should submit their financial proposals in their respective local currency.

The documents for the Technical Proposal should include:

Resume/CV including relevant experience/specific role in undertaking similar assignments, education/other trainings, references, etc. – no more than 4 pages
Description of other similar assignments undertaken during the last 5-10 years including name of the project/publication, summary of the publication, location, name and contact details (e-mail and telephone) of the client, implementation period, no more than 4 pages. UNICEF reserves the right to contact referees provided.
Proposed approach, methodology and workplan in response to successful complete this consultancy; no more than 4 pages
Samples of previous publications/documentation prepared.
The consultant is free to make inputs into the TOR which in his/her view will add value to the assignment.
As indicated in section 7, two separate contracts will be issued by UNICEF ESARO and ESAWAS respectively. However, there will be one joint evaluation of all applicants’ technical and professional rate proposed.

Applications submitted without a fee/ rate will not be considered.

UNICEF and ESAWAS reserve the right to reject any or all submissions.


UNICEF is here to serve the world’s most disadvantaged children and our global workforce must reflect the diversity of those children. The UNICEF family is committed to include everyone, irrespective of their race/ethnicity, age, disability, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, nationality, socio-economic background, or any other personal characteristic.

UNICEF has a zero-tolerance policy on conduct that is incompatible with the aims and objectives of the United Nations and UNICEF, including sexual exploitation and abuse, sexual harassment, abuse of authority and discrimination.

Individuals engaged under a consultancy or individual contract will not be considered “staff members” under the Staff Regulations and Rules of the United Nations and UNICEF’s policies and procedures, and will not be entitled to benefits provided therein (such as leave entitlements and medical insurance coverage). Their conditions of service will be governed by their contract and the General Conditions of Contracts for the Services of Consultants and Individual Contractors. Consultants and individual contractors are responsible for determining their tax liabilities and for the payment of any taxes and/or duties, in accordance with local or other applicable laws.

The selected candidate is solely responsible to ensure that the visa (applicable) and health insurance required to perform the duties of the contract are valid for the entire period of the contract. Selected candidates are subject to confirmation of fully-vaccinated status against SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) with a World Health Organization (WHO)-endorsed vaccine, which must be met prior to taking up the assignment. It does not apply to consultants who will work remotely and are not expected to work on or visit UNICEF premises, programme delivery locations or directly interact with communities UNICEF works with, nor to travel to perform functions for UNICEF for the duration of their consultancy contracts.



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[3] The Eastern and Southern African Water and Sanitation (ESAWAS) Regulators Association is a network of water supply and sanitation (WSS) regulators, formed to enhance the regulatory capacity of members to deliver quality and effective regulation to achieve public policy objectives through cooperation and mutual assistance.

Advertised: 30 Jun 2023 E. Africa Standard Time
Deadline: 14 Jul 2023 E. Africa Standard Time